A Binary Look at System.IConvertible Derivations

Welcome to another article for the Extension Me series. This series focuses on various uses of the .NET Framework feature: Extension Methods. This entry will focus on extending System.IConvertible objects to retrieve its binary form as a String. Basic knowledge of programming in C# and creating extension methods is assumed.

Converting from one data type to another (Casting) is quite commonplace in computer programming. In C# this can be done in various ways:

  1. Implicit Casting
  2. Explicit Casting
  3. Using System.Convert

The list above will be described in the following three sections.

Implicit Casting

This is one of the most basic forms. When one variable of one data type is assigned to another with a different yet compatible data type, they can be implicitly cast. Here is an example:

long lngValue = 9223372036854775806L;
int intValue = 2147483646;
lngValue = intValue;

Above is an example of implicit casting. A long (Int64) variable occupies 64 bits (or 8 bytes, or 16 nibbles). An int (Int32) variable occupies 32 bits (or 4 bytes, or 8 nibbles). Since Int32 memory space can easily fit within Int64 memory space (as depicted below), an implicit conversion can be applied from Int32 to Int64. An explicit cast must be performed when converting the opposite direction (Int64 to Int32) where truncation will occur.

A visual comparison between Int32 and Int64 memory space
Above is a visual comparison between Int32 and Int64 memory space (Int32 to Int64 cast).

Explicit Casting

This is another basic form of casting. Here is an example:

long lngValue = 2147483646L;
int intValue = 0;
intValue = (int)lngValue;

Above is an example of explicit casting. Since a 64-bit variable does not completely fit within a 32-bit memory space, we must use explicit casting while accepting the fact truncation may occur (possibly loss of data). Truncation is depicted below (an Int64 to Int32 cast):

an Int64 to Int32 cast

Using System.Convert

System.Convert contains many methods meant to convert from one base data type to another. There are methods such as ToInt64, ToByte, ToDateTime, etc. Here is an example:

int intValue = 2147483646;
long value = Convert.ToInt64(intValue);

Above is an example using the ToInt64 method of System.Convert. The method accepts the Int32 value we initialized and converts it to Int64. This particular method simply wraps an explicit cast: (long)value. Others are dependent on an object’s implementation of the System.IConvertible interface as shown in the implementation of the Convert.ToInt64(object) method:

public static long ToInt64(object value)
{
    if (value != null)
    {
        return ((IConvertible) value).ToInt64(null);
    }
    return 0L;
}

Above is the implementation of Convert.ToInt64(object). The ToInt64 method of value is called after converting it to System.IConvertible proving its dependence on System.IConvertible objects.

The Extension

Now that we have gone over the basics of casting and the dependency on System.IConvertible objects, the extension method can be created. Below is the implementation:

public static class IConvertibleToBinaryString
{
   public static string ToBinaryString(this IConvertible @this)
   {
      long value = Convert.ToInt64(@this, CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
      string converted = Convert.ToString(value, 2);
      return converted;
   }
}

Above is the implementation of the extension method to convert objects deriving from System.IConvertible to their binary form as a String. First, the object is converted to long. This must be done to be able to specify the base for the Convert.ToString method that follows. The culture information provided is optional. Convert.ToString accepts a value to convert of type long and an integer specifying the base. This is important. Base 2 is binary, therefore, calling Convert.ToString(lngValue, base) with 2 as the base indicates a conversion to the binary form of the long value. There are other bases that can be used as well to created methods such as:

  1. ToHexString (use base 16)
  2. ToOctetString (use base 8)
  3. ToDecimalString (use base 10)

Proving Binary Validity

How does one know that the method actually works? Unit-testing is how! Below is a basic method testing four uses of the extension method previously created. This uses MSTest:

public void ToBinaryFromLong()
{
   long lv = 10L;
   Assert.AreEqual("1010", lv.ToBinaryString());

   short sv = 2;
   Assert.AreEqual("10", sv.ToBinaryString());

   Boolean bln = true;
   Assert.AreEqual("1", bln.ToBinaryString());

   bln = false;
   Assert.AreEqual("0", bln.ToBinaryString());
}

Running the code above should pass. This means the binary form is retrieved as expected.

Conclusion

This entry provided a look at a combination of System.Convert, System.IConvertable, and extension methods. Please note: This entry demonstrated extending System.IConvertible objects. It is not to suggest a String of binary numbers has common relevant uses. This is an enjoyable entry meant to prove it can be done.

Run a System.Action Instantiation Asynchronously

Here is the second article in the Extension Me series. The Extension Me series focuses on various uses of Extension Methods in .NET and primarily uses C# as the language of choice. This article will briefly focus on the topic of Asynchronous Programming by extending System.Action delegates. Using the extension method, any code wrapped in an instantiation of System.Action delegates can be executed asynchronously. The assumptions made about the reader are: has experience with the basics of programming in C# and knows what extension methods are. Please be advised: the implications of asynchronous programming are not to be ignored for severe consequences can occur.

Not only is asynchronous programming fun and beneficial (if used correctly), it is becoming an essential skill as Windows 8 is introduced. Although the implementation of the following asynchronous pattern is incompatible with Metro-style WinRT apps, the theory of asynchronous programming will surely be applicable. More information on Asynchronous Programming can be found at Visual Studio Asynchronous Programming where How-To videos, whitepapers, samples, and walkthroughs are available.

Below is the implementation of the extension method:

public static class ActionExtensions
{
	public static void Async(this Action @this)
	{
		var thread = new Thread(@this.Invoke);
		thread.Start();
	}
}

The code snippet above shows how extension methods can introduce the beauty of System.Action and System.Threading.Thread objects working together. The Action and the Thread are very close. An essential function of System.Action is wrapping a block of executable code while an essential function of System.Threading.Thread is wrapping a block of execution. By embracing these two abilities, code can be executed asynchronously just by wrapping it in an Action delegate. Here is an example:

public void ReturnsQuick()
{
        new Action(() =>
        {
                 //Long Running Code here runs on a separate thread...
        }).Async();
}

When the ReturnsQuick method is called, it creates a new instance of an Action passing a lambda containing “long-running code”. Using the extension method created previously, the code is executed on a separate thread. The code is now asynchronous and, as the name suggests, the ReturnsQuick method returns immediately after calling Async().

As mentioned above when introducing the topic of this article, there are plenty of caveats that must be addressed before adopting this approach (especially application-wide). Shared resource is one of the most important things to consider. If two threads try to access a single resource at the same time, one of them has to loose! Please take a look at the available pdf, “Threading in C#” by Joseph Albahari for a more detailed explanation of proper asynchronous approaches.

Serialization, Encryption, and Extension Methods Working In Harmony

Recently I wrote a blog entry called “Extension Me Serialize: With Encryption!” for Magenic focusing on encrypting serialized data. The url is: http://magenic.com/Blog/ExtensionMeSerializeWithEncryption.aspx and it has been referenced on Channel 9: http://channel9.msdn.com/Shows/This+Week+On+Channel+9/TWC9-Windows-8-C-Amp-NuGet-Mouse-Mischief-and-more.

Embracing the power of extension methods, I offered the ability to easily serialize objects while simultaneously offering security by default and defense in depth approaches. Also, as noted in the post, depending solely on encryption is not a responsible form of security for your IT system. The protection and maintenance of your encryption keys must be the first step. Encryption is meaningless unless the encryption keys are properly managed. If an attacker can easily access the encryption keys used for data encryption and can apply those to decrypt the data, the data is plaintext to them. I implore you, protect   your   keys !